Myths

Myths are known as stories but more importantly sacred tales which are often based on culture, tradition and people. The truth of most myths can be questionable as to whether it is real or fake. Myths main purpose is to connect the ancient and modern cultures. They can sometimes be exaggerated versions of historical events.  You can also have more than one version of the same myth which again begs the question it is real or fake? Seeing as most myths seem unbelievable they do however portray a message of significant value both social and religious.

Myths are human kind’s way of trying to comprehend the universe and explain the origin of the world. Natural phenomena and cultural variations are explained through myths. Myths are often presented in the form of an image, narrative or a written document but that knowledge would have also been passed down verbally. Myths have a religious element to the events happening. Greek myths are often shown as artefacts such as vase-paintings and votive gifts.

There are various myths and legends stemming from a range of cultures all over the world such as Greek, Roman, Norse, Egyptian and American Indian. Greek mythology is the most well known type of myth. They descended from the ancient Greeks. The myths often refer to their gods and heroes or the nature the world. Myths were seen as a religion in ancient Greece known as Hellenismos. Myths were used to signify and show where the cult and ritual practices originated. There are countless Greek myths such as the Greek Gods, Pandora’s Box, Narcissus, Theseus and the Minotaur, The labours of Hercules, The Trojan horse, the story of Odyssey, Perseus and Medusa plus many more. Another myth is that of the Titans who were supposedly the first gods and goddesses before the Olympians. They were known as the Elder Gods. They are not as famous in the Greek Myths as others.

There are old famous literary sources such as Homer’s epic poems Iliad and Odyssey that explain historic events such as the Trojan War. A lot of the Greek myths include the details of a god, goddess, hero, heroine and a mythological creature’s life and adventures. It is said that there were Olympian Gods and Goddesses and that they ruled the universe from Greece’s Mount Olympus. Major examples of gods and goddesses are Aphrodite, Amphitrite, Apollo, Athena, Hades, Poseidon and Zeus. The Romans adopted the same gods and goddesses but with new names such as Zeus who was also known as Jupiter.

The most famous examples of the mythological creatures are the following:-

Centaurs which are half human half horse
Minotaur’s which are half human half bull

Plus more including Furies, Sirens, Sphinx, Pegasus, Cyclopes and Phoenix.

The well known heroes of Greek mythology are Hercules, Achilles, Odysseus, Perseus and Theseus. The well known heroines of Greek mythology are Atalanta, Helen of Troy, Pandora and Hecuba. Helen of Troy was said to be the cause of the Trojan War. The majority of the gods, goddesses, heroes, heroines and mythical creatures are all supernatural and extraordinary.

Titans
the Titans also known as the Elder Gods had unbelievable strength and were abnormally huge. ‘Giants’ to be precise. They were an extremely powerful primeval race of Gods and Goddesses. They were supposedly descendants of Gaia aka Earth and Uranus aka Heaven. The Titans were supremacies that ruled the universe during the Golden Age as told in the legends.  They were the first pantheon of Greco-Roman gods and goddesses, a pantheon being a set of all the gods of a certain myth or religion known as ‘a temple of all gods’. The Titans were based on Mount Othrys.

There were many generations of Titans, each generation mainly consisting of twelve titans. There are both male and female Titans, in the first generation of titans there was Oceanus, Hyperion, Coeus, Cronus, Crius and Lapetus for the males and there was Mnemosyne, Tethys, Theia, Phoebe, Rhea and Themis for the females. In the second generation there was Hyperion’s children Eos, Helios, and Selene; Coeus’s daughters Leto and Asteria; Iapetus’s sons Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Menoetius; Oceanus’ daughter Metis; and Crius’s sons Astraeus, Pallas, and Perses.

Olympians
the Olympians also known as the Dodekatheon were the prime Gods and Goddesses of the Greek Pantheon after the Titans. During and after the war is how the Olympians obtained their supremacy. Like the Titans the Olympians also had twelve main Gods and Goddesses both male and female.  The twelve Gods and Goddesses were Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Athena, Hestia or Dionysus, Apollo, Artemis, Ares, Aphrodite, Hephaestus and Hermes. A lot of the stories about the Gods have been portrayed in art and poems. The theory of the ‘Twelve Gods’ goes way back before any existing Greek or Roman sources so it is made to believe that it is of Anatolian origin. The Homeric Hymn to Hermes has minor references of ancient religious ceremonies connected to the Olympians. After the war the Olympians came to reign on mount Olympus.

War of the Titans
the war between the Titan’s and the Olympian’s is known as ‘Battle of the Titans’, ‘Battle of Gods’, or ‘The Titan War’. The war took place in Thessaly which lasted 10 years; it wasn’t just one but a series of battles that occurred. In which the ‘Titans’ were defeated by the younger race of gods the ‘Olympians’.

The cause of the war was actually the son of the youngest Titan Cronus. Cronus was the king of the Titans who overthrew his father Uranus but the fact that he was able to do this scared him into thinking that one day his child would overthrow him, so every time his wife Rhea gave birth he would swallow the child. Until one time when Rhea pretended to have the child but instead gave him a rock wrapped in a blanket. She hid the real child known as Zeus in a cave in Crete where he grew up eventually to return home and act revenge on his father. Zeus poisoned his father Cronus which caused him to throw up the children he’d swallowed in the past freeing them. Zeus brought together all his brothers and sisters and declared war. Zeus won the war defeating Cronus and the other Titans banishing them all to Tartaros. Zeus and his brothers and sisters then became the Olympians.

There are numerous poems regarding the Titans and Olympians. A leading example of one of these poems is in the Theogony credited to Hesiod. The Titans were a major part mentioned in the poems attributed to Orpheus.

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